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Erik H. Erikson Biography
Erik H. Erikson (June 15, 1902 - May 12, 1994) was a developmental psychologist known for his theory on social development of human beings, and for coining the phrase 'identity crisis'.

The theory describes eight stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. In each stage the person confronts, and hopefully masters, new challenges. Each stage builds on the successful completion of earlier stages. The challenges of stages not successfully completed may be expected to reappear as problems in the future.

(Approx. ages)
Stage Psychosocial crisis Significant relations Psychosocial modalities Psychosocial virtues Maladaptations & malignancies
Infant trust vs mistrust mother to get,
to give in return hope,
faith sensory distortion
Toddler autonomy vs shame and doubt parents to hold on,
to let go will,
determination impulsivity
Preschooler initiative vs guilt family to go after,
to play purpose,
courage ruthlessness
School-age child industry vs inferiority neighborhood and school to complete,
to make things together competence narrow virtuosity
Adolescent ego-identity vs role-confusion peer groups, role models to be oneself,
to share oneself fidelity,
loyalty fanaticism
Young adult intimacy vs isolation partners, friends to lose and find oneself in a
another love promiscuity
Middle aged adult generativity vs self-absorption household,
co-workers to make be,
to take care of care overextension
Old adult integrity vs despair mankind or “my kind” to be,
through having been, to face not being wisdom presumption
Erik H. Erikson Resources
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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article Erik H. Erikson.